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האמנות הניידת בתקופה הפלאוליתית
ד"ר אמנון טיל, DAT
http://web.beitberl.ac.il/%7Eamnon.till/lme.htm

Homepage:
http://mywebpage.netscape.com/amnontl/homepage.htm
New Stage Homepage:
http://www.stage.co.il/Authors/AmnonTill
Email: amnont@walla.co.il

========================================
הקדמה

במאמר זה אביא מקורות דיגיטליים לנושא זה המראים שגם בתקופה
הפלאוליתית התיכונה (Middle Paleolithic) ואפילו בתקופה
הפלאוליתית התחתונה (Lower Paleolithic) הייתה קיימת פעילות
אמנותית.

המאמר הזה חשוב משתי נקודות מבט שונות. ראשית, כוונתו להדגים
שגם בתקופות הפלאוליתיות הקדומות, כגון התקופה הפלאוליתית
התיכונה והנמוכה, הייתה קיימת פעילות אמנותית בקרב
ההומנואידים.

שנית, קיים ויכוח נוקב בקרב העוסקים בתחום הפרה-היסטוריה מתי
החל האדם לחשוב חשיבה סמלית. לדעת חוקרים אירופאים שונים האדם
החל לחשוב בצורה סמלית רק לפני כ-50 אלף שנה.

חוקרים אחרים, כמו רוברט בדנאריק האוסטרלי, חושבים שחשיבה זו
החלה בצורה איטית עוד לפני שני מיליון שנה. מחבר המאמר נוטה
לדעתו של בדנאריק, והקישורים שלהלן, מטרתם להביא סימוכים
מדעיים וראיות שונות לעניין זה של חשיבה סמלית בתקופות מוקדמות
באבולוציה האנושית.
========================================
מאמרים כלליים

Portable palaeoart of the Pleistocene

http://mc2.vicnet.net.au/home/portable/web/index.html

It is estimated that most surviving palaeoart, certainly
over 90% of it, consists of rock art. The much smaller
component, portable palaeoart, is made up of a diversity of
materials, whose key determining feature it is that they are
small enough to be carried around easily by humans, and
which in many cases can be worn on the human body in some
fashion. Included in this are beads and pendants, as well as
other 'decorative' objects; mnemonic devices (such as
'message sticks'), portable engravings and figurines,
plaques, objects bearing series of notches or lines, and
ceremonial objects (e.g. in Australia tjuringas and
cylcons); and manuports such as crystal prisms, fossil
casts, unusually colored or shaped stones and mineral
pigment pieces.

The Origins Of Symbolling

http://www.semioticon.com/virtuals/symbolicity/origins.html

During the course of the late 19th and the entire 20th
century, palaeoanthropology has made great efforts in
illuminating the history of the physical evolution of
hominids. By comparison, almost no effort has been directed
towards learning about their cognitive and cultural
evolution, and yet it would seem to be self-evident that it
is not skeletal architecture that so much separates us from
other primates, but the proliferation of cultural and
cognitive capacities.

It is therefore quite right to say that the reasons for
humanization and the processes involved have so far barely
been considered, and most certainly they have not been
clarified. Indeed, the preoccupations of the disciplines of
archaeology (which in the particular area of cognitive
archaeology is focused on trivial issues, e.g. shamanism)
and paleoanthropology have led to research orientations that
are so skewed that it would be unrealistic to expect these
disciplines to be able to address the topic of hominid
evolution in anything resembling a balanced fashion.

Gallery of Paleolithic Art

http://www.semioticon.com/virtuals/symbolicity/BednarikGallery.html


Stone Age symbolic behaviors: questions and prospects

http://www.semioticon.com/virtuals/symbolicity/behaviours.html

In the evolutionary perspective typical of biology, the more
complex something is the more recent it is. Thus, symbolic
behaviors and the complex symbolic systems they generate
should be very recent because they appear late in the
archaeological record and they are not very different from
contemporary behaviors. Biological studies demonstrate that
different species of a certain family of animals may
co-exist without the need for one to be superior in absolute
terms to the others. However, in the case of humans,
anatomically modern Homo sapiens (AMHS or Homo sapiens), the
absence of any human species other than ours in contemporary
times has always been interpreted considering our ancestors
less evolved, which translates in less intelligent
considering the primary characteristic of AMHS. What happens
then if an archaeologist unearths evidence of symbolic
behaviors in the Middle Paleolithic or evidence of complex
symbolic systems among the Neanderthals? Was the mind of our
ancestors closer to ours than we would like to admit or do
we have a problem in defining symbolic behavior? Perhaps
both, as we shall see.

In the following sections we shall review some recent
developments on early symbolic behaviors and the search for
the origins of them. The behaviors recognized are
undoubtedly advanced and find no parallels in any known
animal, suggesting that they are indeed a form of human
symbolic behavior that needs to be explored. However, the
recognition of differences between the early and mature
symbolic behaviors will prompt a concise review of the state
of research on both biological and archaeological grounds of
the advent of mature ("modern") symbolic behaviors. This
review of evidence will span nearly the whole length of the
Stone Age and include two parallel perspectives, the
biological and archaeological ones. Although there is no
attempt to provide a detailed and comprehensive summary of
these studies, the resulting picture should provide some of
the least controversial elements that may help in assessing
any theoretical criteria on the determination of
symbolicity. In the conclusions this work will try to
provide a contribution on the formation and testing of
theoretical criteria of symbolicity founded on the evidence
as a whole. In addition, some methodological and
interpretive issues will be explored as they come out
throughout the sections.

סימפוזיון וירטואלי על ההתנהגות הסמלית בתקופת האבן. סימפוזיון
זה מכיל 10 מאמרים מדעיים בנושא.

http://www.semioticon.com/virtuals/symbolicity/index.html

The purpose of this virtual symposium is to probe the
implicit criteria used by archaeologists for determining
whether artifacts are symbolic or not, and to explore the
possibility of specifying some context-independent formal
properties which could help identify symbolic artifacts with
a higher degree of plausibility.

MUSEUM OF THE ORIGINS OF MAN

http://www.museoorigini.it/pagina36.html

The problem of the origins of the art has not been resolved,
why it cannot be resolved, in how much an origin that is
quantifiable does not exist, and this is worth also for the
industries.
Today, after all the made discoveries, we can only say, that
the art and the industries of the lower Paleolithic are to
the origin of the successive pre-historical and historical
periods. In fact, in the first 1.500.000 years of life of
the humanity, the progress of the art and the industries has
been so modest, to be unrecognizable even to some students
of the matter. And the term "origin" cannot sure be
attributed to an artifact, in an arc of 1,500,000 years!

They are many to being skeptical about the datings of
million years of the cultural human evolution, just because
there is a nearly nonexistent evolution. However, these
datings carry disorder in the studies between Africa and the
rest of the world, and not are useful to the study of the
art and the industries.

Filingeri L. Birth of the Symbolic Thought, Paleolithic Art
Magazine,

http://www.paleolithicartmagazine.org/pagina111.html

Some examples.
In Africa, at Blombos Cave, 200 miles East Cape Town,
Christopher S. Henshilwood, archaeologist of the South
African Museum of Cape Town and professor associated to the
University of State of New York, Stony Brook, with Francesco
d' Errico of the Institute of Prehistory of Talence, France,
and other scholars, ( see Henshilwood, 2001) found remains
of 70000 years ago.

These remains demonstrate symbolic thought; near bones of
animals fine worked in order to make tools and tips of arrow
(activity that reveals the presence of concepts preliminary
to the execution, moreover of abstract thought), have been
found 8000 red ocher pieces, some of which recorded with
signs of symbolic character, manifestation of abstract and
creative thought, and, obviously, of the presence of a
language for thinking and communication.

According to Henshilwood, "Symbolic thinking means that
people to are using something to mean something else. The
tools I give not have to have only practical purpose. And
the ocher might be used to decorate their equipment, perhaps
themselves. That is to symbol of something else, which we
don't understand. These But it suggests that people must
have had articulate speech to conceive and communicate such
symbolism." (New York Times, December 2, 2001)

SHORT HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERIES OF THE ART OF THE LOWER
PALEOLITHIC, AND HYPOTHESIS ON THE FUTURE OF THE SEARCH

http://www.paleolithicartmagazine.org/pagina73.html

In the sciences the errors are corrected when they are
discovered, in how much are opinions, which come replaced
from other opinions.

The lacked income the art of the lower and middle
Paleolithic in official science, goes back ago to 150 years,
and has not been a simple error, but a most serious
scientific damage, that I will often return to analyze.

The difficulties, that the discoveries of the art of the
lower Paleolithic have met and continue to meet in the
scientific world, give beyond 150 years, are integrating
part of the history of the same discoveries.

The researchers of art of the lower Paleolithic have worked
well, and have worked a lot, but they have not been taken in
considerations by their colleagues' collectors of fossils
and industries.

Origins Net

http://www.originsnet.org

Three Million Years of Prehistoric Art, Religion and Symbol
in Human Evolution

Two Million Years Ago: The Origins of Art and Symbol

http://www.originsnet.org/old.pdf


From art and tools came human origins

http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba42/ba42feat.html#barham

Until fairly recently, modern humans were thought to have
emerged some 40,000 years ago. There were several theories
about how we had evolved from earlier species such as Homo
erectus and the Neanderthals. Then, during the 1980s, new
dating techniques were employed on early modern human
fossils with startling results: our species was between
150,000 and 100,000 years old, with a clear origin in
Africa. Genetic (DNA) evidence supported the case, and the
`Out of Africa' theory of human origins was born.

During the 1990s, the trend of pushing back the dates of
modern human origins continued. The evidence was still
coming from Africa and the `Out of Africa' theory, despite
some temporary setbacks, has been strengthened. Moreover, a
totally new type of evidence - for modern human behavior, in
addition to modern skeletal form - has also been brought
into play.

In recent years, remarkable new evidence has been found in
Africa for the earliest use of pigment, dating to between
200,000 and 350,000 years ago. The use of pigment for
body-painting or drawing suggests a `symbolic' awareness
which has long been regarded as one of the hallmarks of
modernity.

Also from Africa comes evidence for new ways of making and
using stone tools. Hafted knives and spears appear by
200,000 years ago, and for the first time we see regional
styles in tool shapes after more than a million years of
little change. These innovations are tell-tale signs of a
more advanced hominid.

Abstract Engravings Show Modern Behavior Emerged Earlier
Than Previously Thought

http://www.nsf.gov/od/lpa/news/02/pr0202.htm

People were able to think abstractly, and accordingly behave
as modern humans much earlier than previously thought,
according to a paper appearing in this week's issue of
Science

Christopher Henshilwood, adjunct professor at the State
University of New York, Stony Brook, and the Iziko South
African Museum in Cape Town and his team found abstract
representations of two pieces of ochre, two and three inches
long. The objects, dated to at least 70,000 years ago, were
recovered from the Middle Stone Age layers at Blombos Cave,
a site on the southern Cape shore of the Indian Ocean 180
miles east of Cape Town, South Africa. Henshilwood's work at
the cave is supported by the National Science Foundation
(NSF).

The earliest previous evidence of abstract representations
is from the Eurasian Upper Paleolithic period mainly in
France and dated to less than 35,000 years ago.

Ochre, a form of iron ore, is frequently found in Stone Age
sites deposits less than 100,000 years old and may have been
used symbolically as a body or decorative paint and possibly
also for skin protection and tanning animals' hides.

Mind: What archaeology can tell us about the origins of
human cognition?

http://www.vub.ac.be/CLEA/liane/papers/htma-mind.htm

What can relics of the past tell us about the thoughts and
beliefs of the people who invented and used them?  Recently,
collaborations at the frontier of archaeology, anthropology,
and cognitive science have made speculative but nevertheless
increasingly sophisticated efforts to learn something about
the origins and evolution of human cognition from the
archaeological record. By considering objects within their
archaeological context, we have begun to piece together
something of the way of life of people who inhabited
particular locales, which in turn reflects their underlying
thought processes.

Comparing data between different sites or time periods tells
us something about the horizontal (within generation) or
vertical (between generations) transmission of material
culture. In addition to patterns of transmission of existing
kinds of artifacts, we are also interested in novel
artifacts that might be indicative of new cognitive
abilities, belief structures, or levels of cooperation. An
archaeological period marked by the sudden appearance of
many kinds of new objects may suggest the onset of enhanced
creative abilities. By corroborating archaeological findings
with anthropological data (evidence of sudden change in the
size or shape of the cranium, for example) with knowledge
from cognitive science about how minds function, we can make
educated guesses as to what kinds of underlying cognitive
changes could be involved, and how the unique abilities of
Homo sapiens arose.
=====================================
פסלוני ונוס

http://stage.co.il/Stories/532770

=========================================
צבעים שונים

Earliest evidence of art found

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/733747.stm


Archaeologists in Zambia have uncovered evidence that early
humans used paint for aesthetic purposes far earlier than
previously thought.

The team found pigments and paint grinding equipment
believed to be between 350,000 and 400,000 years old. The
oldest pigments previously found were 120,000 years old and
the oldest known paintings are just 35,000 years old.

Over 300 fragments of pigment have now been found in a cave
at Twin Rivers, near Lusaka, Zambia. These materials were
apparently gathered in from the surrounding area.

מערת בלומבו בדרום אפריקה בה נמצאו צבעים שונים בנוסף לחפצי
אמנות ניידת

http://www.svf.uib.no/sfu/blombos


גרזן יד צבוע בן 350 אלף שנה נמצא בקבר בספרד

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/2885663.stm


ציור על גבי עצם שנמצא במערה בצרפת Pech de l'Azé  מ200
אלף לפנה"ס

http://donsmaps.com/cavepaintings2.html

=======================================
חרוזים

חרוזים מביצי יען מלפני 280 אלף שנה

http://donsmaps.com/objects.html

http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn4839


Stone Age beads revealed by archaeologists on Wednesday
could be the strongest evidence yet that humans developed
sophisticated symbolic thought much earlier than once
thought.

The ostrich egg beads and numerous other artifacts,
including ochre pencils, carved bone and stone tools, were
recovered from the Loiyangalani River Valley, in Serengeti
National Park in Tanzania.

The archaeologists who discovered the relics have yet to
date them precisely, but believe they originate from the
African Middle Stone Age - between 280,000 and 45,000 years
ago. This is because they were found in a sedimentary layer
along with many items characteristic of the Middle Stone
Age.

חרוזים במערת Blombos מ73 אלף לפנה"ס.

http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/shell-beads.html

http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/artsandhumanities/story/0,12241,1193237,00.html


חרוזים בקניה באפריקה מלפני 40 אלף שנה

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/128772.stm


Beads and the origins of symbolism

http://www.semioticon.com/frontline/bednarik.htm

An archaeological issue that has been hotly debated in
recent years, and that is of considerable relevance to
semiotics, is the question of the origins of symbolism.
There is no consensus in contemporary archaeology of how,
where and, especially, when symbolism began. Broadly
speaking, two schools of thought have emerged, which are
best described as a short-range and a long-range model. Few
if any researchers occupy the middle ground between them.

According to the currently dominant short-range model, the
earliest evidence we possess of human symbolism is in the
forms of art and indications of language ability. No
art-like productions are recognized of an age exceeding
32,000 or 35,000 years, and the earliest available language
evidence is seen to be the first successful colonization of
Australia, thought to have occurred perhaps 60,000 years
ago. This school of thought is probably most coherently
articulated in the work of two Australians, Davidson and
Noble (1989, 1990, 1992; Noble and Davidson 1996; Davidson
1997). It categorically denies the possibility of human
symbolling abilities beyond, say, 100 ka (100,000 years)
ago.
========================================
אמנות ניידת של הנאנדרטלים

http://stage.co.il/Stories/520872

========================================
פסלונים וגילוף

פסלון של קורמורן מעופף מלפני 30 אלף שנה מגרמניה

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3328229.stm


פני אדם מגולפים על עצם של ממותה מ-24 אלף שנה לפנה"ס

http://donsmaps.com/dolnivenus.html


מפת כוכבים מלפני 32 אלף שנה

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/2679675.stm

=======================================
קבורה סמלית

עצמות אדם צבועות בצבע אדום מלפני 90 אלף שנה במערת Qafzeh
בישראל

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3310233.stm


Stone Age Code Red: Scarlet symbols emerge in Israeli cave

http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20031101/fob6.asp


An Early Case of Color Symbolism
Ochre Use by Modern Humans in Qafzeh Cave

http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/CA/journal/issues/v44n4/034002/brief/034002.abstract.html?erFrom=9132511269370215408Guest

===================================
מוזיקה פרה היסטורית

חליל נאנדרטלי נתגלה בסלובניה בן 43-82 אלף שנה

http://www.greenwych.ca/fl-compl.htm

http://www.msnbc.com/news/372624.asp?cp1=1


ההומו ספיאנס בתקופת הקרח ניגן בחליל

http://www.hayadan.org.il/flute231204.html


בשנת 2004 התגלה חליל משנהב בן 35 אלף שנה במערה בגרמניה.
באותו אתר נתגלו לפני עשור שני חלילים עשויים מעצמות ציפורים.


Archeologists discover ice age dwellers' flute

http://www.cbc.ca/story/arts/national/2004/12/30/Arts/flute-prehistoric041230.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/arts/news/story/0,11711,1375698,00.html


Achim Schneider: Musical Instruments Ice-age musicians
fashioned ivory flute

http://donsmaps.com/musicalinstruments.html


מספר חלילים נתגלו  מ35 אלף שנה ו28 אלף שנה לפנה"ס וחליל בן
43 אלף שנה ממערה של נאנדרטלים.
=======================================
יכולת ספירה עד 5 בתקופה הפלאוליתית

חריטה על עצם פרה היסטורית מגלה:

http://donsmaps.com/numeracy.html

http://donsmaps.com/images/churinga.gif

Abstract thought is also seen in the ability to count. In
the Upper Paleolithic there is evidence of this in the form
of sets of signs engraved on bone ('marques de chasse' or
'hunting tallies'), but very few of these convey a system
which we can comprehend or even perceive.

In this context, reference can be made to the 'churinga'
from the grotte de la Roche at Lalinde, dated to the very
end of the Paleolithic (fig shown), on which there are
alternating series of five horizontal and five vertical
marks. There are five groups of each, but the last vertical
group contains only four marks, and the aesthetic character
of the whole, surrounded by other marks, casts doubt on the
view that its primary purpose was for calculation. The
engraver at least, would have known how to count to five on
his fingers. The common use of abstract numbers up to five
is thus assured.
=========================================
ביבליוגרפיה

ספרים ומאמרים העוסקים באבולוציה של האדם

http://stage.co.il/Stories/493330

=======================================
מאמרים בסידרה: האבולוציה של האדם

http://web.beitberl.ac.il/%7Eamnon.till/lhuev.htm

=======================================

הבלוג שלי בתפוז
http://www.tapuz.co.il/blog/userBlog.asp?FolderName=amnontill

הבלוג שלי בקפה דמרקר
http://cafe.themarker.com/view.php?u=162968

========================







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הנהלת האתר אחראים לנזק, אבדן, אי נוחות, עגמת
נפש וכיו''ב תוצאות, ישירות או עקיפות, שייגרמו
לך או לכל צד שלישי בשל מסרים שיפורסמו
ביצירות, שהנם באחריות היוצר בלבד.
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בבמה מאז 3/1/06 20:57
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